Posts tagged: installation

3-Wire and 4-Wire Dryer Receptacles

By admin, June 21, 2012 9:01 am
Question: 3-Wire and 4-Wire Dryer Receptacles
I’m often asked how to wire dryer outlets, how to convert the wiring either from 3-wire to 4-wire, or to convert the wiring from 4-wire to 3-wire. Some people feel overwhelmed when they encounter these circumstances. Not to fear though, I have the answers on how to wire and convert the wiring to make your dryer work perfectly and safely.
Answer: First of all, to properly wire a dryer outlet (receptacle), you’ll need to follow my guide on How To Wire a Dryer Outlet. This step-by-step set of instructions will have you drying clothes in no time at all.

Then there’s the issue with converting the wiring from a three-wire dryer cord to four-wire cord. How is this possible? Well, in my guide on How To Change An Electric Dryer Cord From 3-Prong To 4-Prong Cords.

This is a great step-by-step guide and is easy to do yourself in just minutes.

Likewise, there’s a guide to covert the cords from 4-wire to 3-wire. In my guide on How To Convert Electric Clothes Dryer Cords From 4-Prong To 3-Prong.

If you simply want to learn how to wire a 3-pronged dryer outlet, simply follow my guide on How To Wire A Dryer Outlet. In it, I show you step-by-step instructions on the installation process. best online casino .

Lastly, here’s a how-to for a four-pronged dryer outlet installation.

Palo Alto User-funded Fiber Network Economically Unfeasible

By admin, June 15, 2012 6:36 pm

Some residents and local governments have clamored for municipal fiber access, but the economics make it difficult to achieve in practice.

If a tech-heavy city like Palo Alto?(News – Alert), Calif. can’t make it cost-effective, other cities building similar networks might reconsider the idea.

The city’s Utilities Advisory Commission made a four-to-three vote to recommend that the City Council stop considering expanding Palo Alto’s dark fiber network to more residents. This is only advisory, however, and the city has not yet decided to actually kill the 41-mile fiber ring.

The reason for the recommendation is simple: they just can’t convince residents to fork over their money for fiber service.

“A fully user-financed citywide fiber-to-the-premise system is not possible to achieve in Palo Alto,” a Tellus Venture Associates report said. “An opt-in FTTP system can be built using a combination of upfront user fees and City financing, but there is very little probability of the debt incurred being repaid through operations.”

Although the city receives over $2 million in annual revenue from the network, extending the last mile into residents’ homes is expensive. In a “best case” scenario, residents would pay $1,000 for the installation, and $75 a month for service.

Only 10 percent of Palo Alto residents would pay $3,000 for installation, even if the service was free from then on.

“What the Palo Alto case says is that if you’re looking at a user-financed model to pay the upfront costs of building the network and you’re in a competitive market where you have good service from incumbents, it’s not going to fly,” Steven Blum, author of the Tellus report, told Ars Technica.

Given the close vote, however, it seems that the decision to scrap the network, if it actually comes, won’t be easy. Responding to the article in Ars Technica, Jonathan Foster, who chairs the Utilities Advisory Commission, said some members of Palo Alto’s City Council were still strong advocates of the network.

Edited by Braden Becker

NTUA Awards Ceragon $4M Contract to Supply Microwave Solutions, Turnkey Services

By admin, May 25, 2012 3:48 pm

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Cable, Wire And Conduit Installation Dates

By admin, March 3, 2012 12:00 pm

Wiring methods have changed over the years from knob and tube to flexible armored cable (Greenfield) to nonmetallic cable (NM), conduit (EMT), and underground feeder (UF) cable. From about 1890 to the present, wiring methods have become much safer due to the installation types of wiring and the addition of ground wires. Between 1890 and 1910, knob and tube wire was all the rage in home building. Individual insulated wires were held in place by porcelain insulating brackets. They also passed through wood in porcelain tubes that protected the rubberized cloth fabric from damage. This practice had a hot wire and a neutral wire that were run separately for safety and so they could be spliced together. To do this, the insulation was stripped back, a wire was wrapped around the exposed bare wire, and the splice was soldered together before being taped to cover the splice. The downfall was the wire was exposed to everything and there was no ground wire utilized.

In the 1920’s to 1940’s, electrical took a turn to a more protective wiring sceme, flexible armormed cable. Flex, also known as Greenfield, was a welcomed addition to home wiring because the flexible metal walls helped to protect the wires from damage. Even then, this wiring method had its troubles. Although the wire is protected and the outer flexible metal cover acts as a ground, there still was no seperate ground wire. If the flexible covering didn’t make contact with the next piece or it was cut, the ground connection was severed.

In the 1930’s, a quicker installation method was developed. Nonmetallic sheathed cable was born and it incorporated a rubberized fabric coating sheath, much like knob and tube wiring, but a hot and neutral wire were run together in this one sheath. It also had its drawbacks due to the lack of a ground wire. blackjack online .

Luckily in the 1940’s, finally came the age of metal conduit. This invention allowed users to pull many wires in the same enclosure. online casino dgfev . The conduit itself is considered a grounding method, but also leaves the possibilty of space for a ground wire to be pulled. Conduit has been in use ever since those days and comes in many different types and sizes to be used inside and outside of your home.

The newest addition to wiring was introduced in the 1960’s around 1965. It was an update to NM cable that incorporated the use of a third wire, a bare ground wire run with a hot and netral wire. These three wires are all concealed in an outer sheath made of plastic vinyl. This update made the cable inexpensive and very easy to install. It is very flexible and is used still today.

Along with NM cable for interior use, a similar type cable was also invented. Underground feeder wire(UF) was invented to be buried directly under the ground without having to be placed in conduit. This type wire has a hot, a neutral, and a ground wire embedded in a solid plastic vinyl sheath that protects it from damp areas, water, and materials underground. This was an inexpensive addition to running power underground to things like yard lights and outbuilding feeds.

As you can see, things have certainly changed over the years for the better! You see, the rubber-coated wire would only hold up for 25 years or so before the rubber would dry out and start cracking. This left exposed bare wires that could cause a multitude of problems. Plastic vinyl has been shown to last the life expectancy of your home and is a much better method of wiring. For the preferred method in my book, I choose a conduit installation. With this, you can pull the wires easily, add wires to the conduit (as allowed), and have a system that protects the wires from damage. It is the all-in-one system, of choice. The only question now is, will we see another next big thing in electrical wiring in our lifetime?

KINOPTIC extends reach into the network and lowers costs

By admin, February 17, 2012 7:21 am

Friday, Feb 17, 2012

Nexans, a worldwide expert in the cable industry, is using its presence at this year’s FTTH Council Conference and exhibition to highlight its extended KINOPTICâ„¢ brand of end-to-end turnkey FTTH solutions. It will also host various workshops at the conference that demonstrate more efficient and cost-effective ways of deploying fibre to the home.

KINOPTIC – smart individual solutions to build an end-to-end network

The KINOPTICâ„¢ brand was launched last March to enable network operators and installers to easily meet all the needs of their FTTH deployments in multi-dwelling units (e.g. homes). It achieves this through a cleverly designed subscriber terminal outlet kit and by combining this with a pre-terminated cable and a pre-fitted user outlet in ‘ready-to-unroll’ packaging – therefore simplifying installation.

Since then, the brand offering has expanded and solutions have been designed for various locations on the network. Flexibility is a key trait of the brand and it now includes solutions for the central office, the distribution network and subscriber premises.

The type of KINOPTICâ„¢ solution that is chosen by operators and installers depends on the field configuration and the type of cable laying technique required to fit the cable. For instance, some cables are either pulled, blowed or extracted during installation.

In addition to this, because of the way the range has been designed, the operator and installer can select the exact solutions they need to be fitted across the FTTH network – and at every stage of the installation – right through to the subscriber’s home.

Further benefits of using KINOPTICâ„¢ include: CAPEX savings and OPEX optimisation; quick and easy deployment; flexibility to adapt to their environment in the field; and a brand that respects the aesthetics of people’s homes and private areas;

“The KINOPTICâ„¢ range, demonstrates how Nexans takes advantage of its broad industrial knowledge and expertise across various fields to innovate and develop a complete solution that serves the market’s needs,” says Xavier RENARD, Nexans Interface Product & Marketing Department Manager. “It includes all the necessary cables and accessories required to easily and quickly deliver an FTTH solution to network operators and installers.” 

Source: Nexans

Our First GPON Installation

By admin, February 7, 2012 11:42 pm

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Cable characteristics for photovoltaic applications

By admin, January 26, 2012 10:13 pm

Thursday, Jan 26, 2012

Topsolar cables, from Top Cable, become the best alternative when performing photovoltaic installations.

Connection of panels to the Low Voltage network in continuous current

The TOPSOLAR (PV) cable has been specifically designed to withstand the most demanding conditions between the panels and LV network in continuous current from a solar photovoltaic installation.

Its excellent proprieties make it the best cable for all LV installations:

• It has a useful life of 30 years at 90 ºC, being able to withstand up to 120°C continuously. Temperatures higher than 90 ºC are common in installations on rooftops. Normal cables with reticulated polyethylene or EPR insulation are designed for a maximum conductor temperature of 90 ºC and noticeably colder surroundings. It is demonstrated in tests that the TOPSOLAR (PV) cable shows high resistance to weather corrosion, abrasion, and chemical agents.

• Its allowable current is superior in identical sections to conventional cables. High-quality ethylene-propylene insulation of TOPSOLAR (PV) cables allows the conductor’s temperature to reach 120ºC, which implies important increases in allowable currents with regards to similar sections of conventional cables.

• It is halogen-free, fire-retardant and has reduced the emission of opaque fumes. It surpasses the tests for flame-retardants, fire-retardants, low emission of opaque fumes and low emission of toxic and corrosive gases, which on top of decreasing the collateral effects of fires on people, also protects the solar installations’ valuable electronic equipment due to its high fireproofing and the low corrosiveness of emitted gases.  

• It is fit for mobile services. The use of followers is frequent to get the most out of solar radiation. It should not be forgotten that in these cases the connection cables between mobile structures and the fixed parts are subject to movement, for which conventional cables are not suitable. The TOPSOLAR (PV) line demonstrates good mechanical properties even at low temperatures.

• It is more convenient to install due to its extraordinary flexibility and reduced diameter. casino . The cable is made of a flexible class 5 tin-plated copper conductor, high-quality insulation of ethylene propylene and an outer sheath of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Its reduced outer diameter makes the cable more manageable and takes up less space in the wiring.

Cables for the Low Voltage network in alternate current

At the inverter’s output begins the LV network in alternate current, which ends in the connection point to the LV network or even the transformer, in the case of connecting to the MT network. In solar parks, this LV channelling in alternate current tends to be buried pipes. Moreover, in this type of application, the designers should evaluate the possible presence of rodents in any part of the installation. online casino . In this case the use of armoured cables should be considered, like those of the TOPSOLAR XZ1FA3Z-K type.

Cables for the Medium Voltage network

Top Cable offers two cable families:

• those insulated in reticulated polyethylene (XLPE)

• those insulated with ethylene propylene (HEPR)

Both in voltages up to 30 kV.

The X-VOLT range has its cold-shrinkable outer semiconductive layer, a quality highly valued by the installers, given that its easy removal is a critical factor when correctly preparing the cable tips for the making of joints and outlets, furthermore constituting a notable saving of time.
 
The X-VOLT RHZ1 cables, insulated in XLPE, are characterized by a good dielectric rigidity, low loss factor and high insulation resistance.

The X-VOLT HEPRZ1 cables, insulated with HEPR, can withstand temperatures of 105 ºC in continuous operation, demonstrating very good resistance to thermal aging and partial discharge.

In both cases, the cables can include elements sealed in the shield that impede longitudinal water propagation in case of breakdown of the sheath and/or elements for the longitudinal sealing of the conductor.

For more information visit topcable.com

 

Source: Top Cable

NEW WEBSITE Ecomatic Calculate energy in a SUSTAINABLE way.

By admin, January 26, 2012 10:32 am

Thursday, Jan 26, 2012

Top Cable has developed an innovative measuring tool called Ecomatic which calculates how much energy you save in electrical installations.

Sustainable development is part of Top Cable’s strategy, as shown by their commitment to controlling and reducing their impact on the environment. Strengthening this commitment, the Ecomatic programme calculates the energy that you can save choosing a cross-section that is greater than what is strictly necessary for your installation. A greater conductor cross-section reduces the circuit’s resistance, decreasing Joule losses and optimising the use of energy.

Ecomatic gets you significant energy savings, with a subsequent drop in the electric bill and a considerable reduction in CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. casino online . It is a highly useful tool for engineers, installers, distributors and students.

topcable.com/ecomatic/

Source: Top Cable

RWE Deutschland, Nexans and KIT launch "AmpaCity" project: the world’s longest superconductor system to replace inner-city high-voltage…

By admin, January 23, 2012 7:11 am

Monday, Jan 23, 2012

The “AmpaCity” project has been kicked off: The RWE Group and its partners are just about to replace a 1-kilometre-long high-voltage cable connecting two transformer stations in the Ruhr city of Essen with a state-of-the-art superconductor solution. This will mark the longest superconductor cable installation in the world. The three-phase, concentric 10 kV cable will be produced by Nexans and is designed for a transmission capacity of 40 megawatts. As part of this project, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology will analyse suitable superconducting and insulating materials. multitenancy: This refers to the situation where a single instance of an appli- cation runs on an SaaS vendor’s servers, but serves multiple client organiza- tions (tenants), keeping all their hard drive recovery services separate.. This installation will also be the first to combine a superconducting cable with a resistive superconducting fault current limiter for overload protection. The limiter will be manufactured by Nexans unit specialized in superconductors, located in Huerth, Germany.

The project could herald a whole new dimension in the restructuring of inner-city networks. Following the successful completion of a two-year field test, it would be possible to install 10 kV superconducting links in large sections of the backbone of the Essen distribution network as part of efforts to release from high-voltage installations. In the medium term, this would lead to greater efficiency as well as lower operating and maintenance costs while simultaneously reducing land use. The dismantling of numerous 110/10 kV transformer stations would help to free up valuable space in inner-city areas. Thanks to the distinctive nature and ambitions of AmpaCity, the project is being supported by the energy research department of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). Research project total costs are approximately €13.5 million including government-funded €6 million.

Study highlights the economic efficiency of superconductors

The project was preceded by a detailed study in which a number of research institutes, under the leadership of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, worked alongside with the project partners Nexans and RWE to analyse the technical feasibility and economic efficiency of a superconductor solution at medium-voltage level. The study revealed that superconducting cables are the only reasonable alternative to high-voltage cables in city networks and that their use would mean that resource- and land-intensive transformer stations could be demolished. Although copper medium-voltage cables could also be used in inner-city areas to transmit high power, the cost efficiency of this solution would be cancelled out by the much higher ohmic loss. Furthermore, conventional medium-voltage cables for the Essen project are also out of question, as they require much more routing space: instead of a single 10 kV superconductor cable, five copper cables would need to be laid in parallel – often a largely impossible task given the limited space under the city streets.

Efficiency technology to soon compete with conventional solutions

State-of-the-art high-temperature superconductors (cooled with liquid nitrogen) such as those used in AmpaCity have been ready for deployment in energy-related applications for some years now, although they have yet to be used on a large scale. Thanks to improved production processes, superconducting wires are only now available in sufficient lengths and quantities. Superconductivity is an efficiency technology because it helps to protect material and energy resources. Experts anticipate that these innovative cables will soon be in a position to compete with copper solutions in energy-intensive applications. The BMWi understands superconducting equipment as an important component of future energy supply concepts.

Technical superiority of ice-cold conductors

The technical predominance of superconducting cables can be attributed to the material properties of the conductor. At temperatures of around -200°C, the material is transformed into an almost perfect electrical conductor being able to transport at least 100 times more electricity than copper. Despite the cooling jacket, the compact design of the superconductor means that it can transport five times the electricity as a similarly sized copper cable – and with much fewer electrical losses.

In order to reach its ideal conducting temperature, the concentric superconducting cable is cooled with liquid ni-trogen. Thus it can conduct high currents with minimal loss and smaller cross-sections than an adequate copper cable.

Source: Nexans

Germany’s Finanz Informatik Deploys Encrypted Optical Networking for Data Security

By admin, January 18, 2012 12:35 am

Today, security of information is critical to businesses of all sizes. Considering the rate at which hackers are stealing data from websites and online data resources, companies are taking extra steps to protect confidential information. Therefore, to secure customers’ mission critical data, Germany’s IT service provider to the financial industry, Finanz Informatik Technology Services (FI-TS), has deployed  ADVA Optical Networking’s (News – Alert) FSP 3000’s encryption technology.

In a statement, Jörg Göttmann, network engineer at FI-TS commented, “Our customers allow its business-critical applications to run through our data centers. We cannot allow the loss or theft of data under any circumstances.”

Göttmann added, “As a full provider of IT-services, we searched for a trustworthy partner who was not only a technology leader but could also implement our network expansion on a tight schedule. ADVA Optical Networking outperforms in all these areas. The final test measurements confirmed that the newly established routes were performing at maximum bandwidth. Our established partner, Controlware, ensured the installation ran smoothly.”

According to ADVA Optical, FI-TS’s new data centers offer business continuity, disaster recovery, as well as storage area networking (SAN) and MPLS-services to customers in the finance sector because they deploy redundant fiber links with AES256 encryption. To improve network efficiency and control, while reducing power consumption and space, FI-TS uses a large portion of the available module interfaces, including 2, 4, and 8 Gbps Fibre Channel, and 1 and 10 Gbps Ethernet or various combinations.

In another statement, Hartmut Müller-Leitloff, VP Central Europe, ADVA Optical Networking said, “The FSP 3000 provides integrated encryption technology based on internationally-accepted standards for an excellent price-performance ratio.” “We have worked on successful data center interconnection projects with FI-TS since 2000 and are proud to take this step together into the next generation of secure and efficient data transmission.”

As per ADVA Optical’s explanation, the FSP 3000 is a scalable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system specifically designed for large enterprises and service providers that require a flexible, cost-effective system that will multiplex, transport and protect high-speed data, storage, voice and video applications over fiber optic networks.


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Ashok Bindra is a veteran writer and editor with more than 25 years of editorial experience covering RF/wireless technologies, semiconductors and power electronics. To read more of his articles, please visit his columnist page.

Edited by Jennifer Russell